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Surgical intervention has been frequently performed to treat cranial wounds, headaches, but also could be used to treat infections or tumours inside the cranium.
In the case of the child from Baracs, the cause of this type of surgery is not evident, but some features of the cut suggest that the aim of the trepanation was possibly to treat a blade wound. At the same time a small depression fracture due to a blow to the skull can be seen on the cranial surface near to the trepanation, which could be also a reason for a treatment of an intracranial injury.
The secondary complication of the previously showed trepanation was an inflammation of the wound, which is signed by the bone structure changes at the edges of the opening toward the occipital bone. It can be clearly seen that a cavity was formed in the cranial wall as the result of the inflammation which opens onto the skull surface. The inflammation may have been partly caused by the fact that here, the piece of bone was broken and forced off, not cut.